Limited Ambitions: Sources

Why Women Can’t Win for Trying

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80 cents on the male dollar: ” Women’s Earnings,” Government Accountability Office, October 2003

$1.2 million over her career: “The Gender Wage Ratio,”, Institute for Women’s Policy Fact Sheet, August 2005

Less than a half penny per year: “Women’s Earnings as a Percentage of Men’s,” US Women’s Bureau and the National Committee on Pay Equity

RFK’s all-male club: Burk, Martha. Cult of Power, Scribner: 2005

Catalyst and Augusta: Burk, Martha. Cult of Power, Scribner: 2005; Catalyst

GE as Catalyst winner: “Prestigious Catalyst Award for Efforts to Advance Women Employees”, Catalyst press release, January 2004; and “The Bottom Line”, Catalyst report, 2004

Companies with female execs yield higher returns: “The Bottom Line”, Catalyst report, 2004

Employed spouses: female vs. male execs: “Leaders in a Global Economy”, Catalyst report

Children: female vs. male execs: “High-Achieving Women “, Center for Work-Life Policy, April 2005

Children and earnings increases: ” Women’s Earnings,” Government Accountability Office, October 2003

Paid parental leave in industrialized countries: The Project on Global Working Families “The Work, Family, and Equity Index: Where Does the United States Stand Globally?,” June 16, 2004.

86% of Sunday-morning talk shows; 80% of the Daily Show: “Who’s Talking?”, The White House Project, 2005; and The Daily Show video archives

5 of 20-odd thought-leader magazines: Samir Husni, Journalism Department, University of Mississippi.

24% of recent stories in major mags written by women: “WomenTK”

1/3 on gender, family or short stories, memoirs: “WomenTK” and Mother Jones count

41% of Mother Jones stories over same period: “Mother Jones: Sept/Oct 2005, Nov 2005, Dec 2005”

Cost of being Carrie Bradshaw: Candace Bushnell, creator of Sex and the City.; Mark Chulpayed, owner, Belazza Salon and Spa; Sally Hershberger Downtown; Bliss 49 spa; Reebok Sports Club/NY; City Sun Tanning;

“Best” firms lists and pay-to-play advertising: Martha Burk, Cult of Power Scribner, 2005.

Working Mother best firms for women of color: “Charting Women of Color at Our Winning Companies”, Working Mother magazine, 2005

Women over 65 in poverty: “Reading Between the Lines: Women’s Poverty in the United States”, Legal Momentum, 2003

Actors and actresses over 40: “The Celluloid Ceiling”

Bancroft and Hoffman in The Graduate: “IMDB pages for Bancroft, Hoffman and The Graduate”, Internet Movie Database

Best actresses: Prostitutes, Nuns, and Mutes: “ Best Actresses”

Orchestra auditions behind a screen: “Orchestrating Impartiality”, Princeton University, 1997

Husbands do less work than they create: “Off-Ramps and On-Ramps”, Harvard Business Review, March 2005

Teenagers adding to mom and dad’s housework: “Social Forces; September 01, 2000: Is Anyone Doing the Housework?”

Heavyset women get fewer promotions: Gender, Body Mass and Economic Status National Bureau of Economic Research, May 2005.

The Shrinking Model: “Eating Disorders: Get the Facts”, National Women’s Health Resource Center, 2005

Dove ad campaign: “When Tush Comes to Dove”,, August 1, 2005

College men prefer women in subordinate jobs: Stephanie L. Brown and Brian P. Lewis, “Relational dominance and mate-selection criteria: Evidence that males attend to female dominance,” Evolution and Human Behavior 25 (2004), p.406-415. >

Men earning fewer B.A.s: National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 2004, Table 169 (Enrollment, staff, and degrees conferred in postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV programs, by level and control of institution, sex, and type of degree: Fall 2001, fall 2002, and 2002-03).

Affirmative action for men: “Colleges remain cautious in handling gender diversity,” USA Today, Oct. 20, 2005.

Female Ph.D.s, tenure and babies: Mary Ann Mason and Marc Goulden, “Do Babies Matter (Part II)?” Academe, November-December 2004.

Women in Iraq’s parliament and U.S. Congress, and African nations with a higher percentage of female legislators than the U.S.: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Women in National Parliaments.

The Vanishing Point: 2002 Catalyst Census of Women Corporate Officers and Top Earners in the Fortune 500.

America better off with more women in top political jobs: Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government, Center for Public Leadership, National Leadership Index 2005.

Labor Dept.’s missing publications: National Council for Research on Women, “MISSING: Information about Women’s Lives,” March 2004.

Merrill Lynch sexual harassment: “Merrill Lynch Firm Is Told It Must Pay In Sexual Bias Case,” The New York Times, April 21, 2004.


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