Sources: Dope and Glory

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20% of women and 10% of men unattractive: “The Swimsuit Issue: Correlates of Body Image in a Sample of 52,677 Heterosexual Adults,” David Frederick, Letitia Anne Peplau, and Janet Lever, September 11, 2006, Body Image, Vol. 3, Issue 4, pp. 413-419; “Americans Agree That Being Attractive Is a Plus in American Society,” Gallup Poll, September 15, 1999

Americans’ plastic surgery spending: “2008 Quick Facts,” American Society of Plastic Surgeons

The Miss California pageant: CBS News transcript for May 1, 2009, interview with Keith Lewis

Scandals cost Prejean her crown: “Pageant Producers Sue Prejean over Breast Implants,” FOX 5 San Diego, October 20, 2009; Countersuit filed by K2 Productions, Keith Lewis, Shanna Moakler versus Carrie Prejean, California Superior Court, Los Angeles County, case number BC420823

Stripper Chesty Love: “Beyond Medical Futility: A Proposed Taxonomy of Ultra Vires Acts in Medicine,” Frederick Adolf Paola, August 31, 2006, Internal and Emergency Medicine

Penis size: “Penile Size and the ‘Small Penis Syndrome,'” Kevan Wylie and Ian Eardley, 2007, BJU, Vol. 99, pp. 1449-1455

Families for ED Advertising Decency Act: “Text of H.R. 2175: Families for ED Advertising Decency Act

The World Anti-Doping Agency’s Viagra testing: “New Suspect in Sports Doping Is, No Joke, Viagra,” Jere Longman, November 23, 2008, the New York Times; interview with Kenneth Rundell, Human Performance Laboratory, Marywood University, October 29, 2009

Rafael Palmeiro tested positive for steroids: “Rafael Palmeiro Suspended 10 days,” MLB press release, August 1, 2005

Barry Bonds’ 115% jump in home runs: “MLB Career Statistics for Barry Bonds“; Game of Shadows: Barry Bonds, BALCO, and the Steroids Scandal that Rocked Baseball, Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams, 2006, p. 64, 71, 83

Mickey Rourke in The Wrestler: “The Unlikely Return of Mickey Rourke,” Amy Wallace, January 13, 2009, Men’s Journal

4 inches of height corresponds earnings increase: Normal at Any Cost, Susan Cohen and Christine Cosgrove, 2009, The Penguin Press, pp. 348-349

Tom Cruise (5’7″) wears 2-inch lifts: “Tom Cruise Height – Shoe Lifts!,” How to Grow Taller Blog; “Famous Men Who Need a Little Lift,” Emine Saner, April 9, 2009, the Guardian

Leg lengthening procedures: “Make me taller,” Simon Smith, June 26, 2007, Better Humans

Plastic surgeons report competitiveness surgeries: “The Pressure to Look Good Grows,” American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery’s Annual Survey, March 5, 2008

SuChin Pak told Oprah eyelid surgery “was like having a degree from a better school”: “Children Ashamed of the Way They Look,” The Oprah Winfrey Show, May 28, 2007

1 in 5 college students say they’ve taken Adderall, Ritalin, or other prescription drugs to help with their work: “Nonmedical Use of Prescription Stimulants Among College Students: Associations With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Polydrug Use,” Pharmacotherapy, 2008

1/5 of scientists surveyed by Nature say the same: “Poll Results: Look Who’s Doping,” Nature, April 9, 2008

Bioethicists wrote that cognitive enhancing drugs are “morally equivalent to” getting a good night’s sleep: “Towards Responsible Use of Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs by the Healthy,” Nature, December 17, 2008

Anheuser-Busch pulled its alcoholic energy drink amid controversy in June 2008: “Assurance of Voluntary Compliance and Voluntary Discontinuance,” from Anheuser-Busch to 11 State attorneys general, July 1, 2008

Study concludes that Red Bull might trigger “pathological mood switches”: “Letters to the Editor,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, June 2001

Stay Alert caffeinated chewing gum has 25% more caffeine per piece than a can of Red Bull: Stay Alert Gum has 100 mg per piece and Red Bull has 80 mg per can.

In 2003, the World Anti-Doping Agency added Provigil to its list of banned stimulants: “WADA Prohibited List, 2004

Provigil is an Air Force “go pill” used to keep pilots awake: “Modafinil and Management of Aircrew Fatigue,” memorandum by the Department of the Air Force, December 2, 2003

The Pentagon’s mechanical exoskeleton makes lifting 200 pounds feel like lifting 20: “The ExoSkeleton: Extreme Technological Innovation,” Raytheon press release, May 19, 2009

80% of the members of the World Transhumanist Association say they’d consider having their brains uploaded: “Report on the 2007 Interests and Beliefs Survey of the Members of the World Transhumanist Association,” World Transhumanist Society, January 2008

The WTA report also notes how economic an uploaded life would be: “Report on the 2007 Interests and Beliefs Survey of the Members of the World Transhumanist Association,” World Transhumanist Society, January 2008

Transhumanist Ray Kurzweil predicts that “the singularity” will come as soon as 2045: The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology, by Ray Kurzweil, 2005

The Los Angeles clinic that offered prenatal screening for hair color, eye color, and complexion pulled its service after outcry: “Eye and Hair Color Program Suspension,” online announcement by the Fertility Institutes, March 2, 2009

Microsoft’s patent for technologies implanted in the body: “Method and Apparatus for Transmitting Power and Data Using the Human Body,” US patent #6,754,472 B1, June 22, 2004

Cybernetics professor Kevin Warwick’s article about brain implants: “Cyborg 1.0,” Wired, February 2000


False Positives:

Floyd Landis: Positively False: The Real Story of How I Won the Tour de France, Floyd Landis and Loren Mooney, p. 163, 190, 267

Petr Korda: “The Doping Excuses Hall of Fame,” Mathew Homan, Wired

Ben Johnson: “Sprinter Mitchell Suspended,” the Associated Press, August 3, 1999

Dennis Mitchell: “The Most Corrupt Race Ever,” August 1, 2004, the Guardian UK

Barry Bonds: “What Bonds Told BALCO Grand Jury,” the San Francisco Chronicle, December 3, 2004

Roger Clemens: “Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Investigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball, aka the Mitchell Report,” December 13, 2007, pp. 167-175

Paul Edwards: “Drugs: Why They Do It, and How They Say They Didn’t Do It,” Duncan MacKay, January 31, 1999, the Observer UK Sports

Andre Agassi: “Agassi Says Father Gave Him Speed before Match,” Linda Pearce, November 2, 2009, Sydney Morning Herald; “WADA Aims to Prove Agassi to See if Charges Can Be Filed,” November 2, 2009, Calgary Herald

Marco Borriello: “Borriello suspended after drug test,”, December 2, 2006; “Official roster page for Marco Borriello of AC Milan”; “Foul Play: The Seven Deadly Sins of Football: Lust,” the Guardian UK, May 22, 2009

Tyler Hamilton: “Bad Blood,” Austin Murphy, May 30, 2005, Sports Illustrated


Dope and Glory:

Early Greek Olympians doped too: “Performance-Enhancing Medications and Drugs of Abuse, by Mark S. Gold, 2007

The world’s first rhinoplasty was in India: “Susruta and Our Heritage,” Chari PS, The Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, 2003, Vol 36, Issue 1, pp. 4-13

The Vatican’s anti-plastic-surgery stance: A History of Plastic Surgery, Paolo Santoni-Rugiu, Philip J. Sykes p. 195

King Charles II’s coffee ban: “By the King. A Proclaimation for the Suppression of the Coffee-Houses,” 1675

Baseball pitcher “Pud” Galvin injected himself with ground testicles in 1889: “Base Ball Notes,” the Washington Post, August 14, 1889

Thomas Hicks won the 1904 Olympic marathon while drinking egg whites, brandy, and strychnine: A History of Drug Use in Sport 1876-1976: Beyond Good and Evil, Paul Dimeo, pp. 25-6

Nazi and Allied troops took amphetamine in WWII: On Speed: the Many Lives of Amphetamine, Nicolas Rasmussen, pp. 54-55

The Rolling Stones’ “Mother’s Little Helper”: “Archive : Events : 1966-07-01,” timeline on The Rolling Stones website

Track & Field News hails steroids as the “breakfast of champions”: Phone call to Track & Field News on October 29, 2009, and Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise, by Michael S.Bahrke and Charles Yesalis

The Six Million Dollar Man would be worth $29 million today: CPI Inflation Calculator for 1973 from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics

Urologist exposes his medically induced erect penis to urology conference: A Mind of Its Own: a Cultural History of the Penis, David M. Friedman, 2001, pp. 254-256

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s quote on his past steroid use: “The Arnold Era,” Patrick Goldstein, LA Times Magazine, June 16, 1996

East German shot-put champ has female-to-male sex change: “East German Steroids’ Toll: ‘They Killed Heidi,'” Jere Longman, the New York Times, January 26, 2004

WADA removes caffeine from banned substance list: “Summary Notes WADA List Committee Meeting 4-5 September 2003, Montreal

Viagra’s 2004 fantasy baseball game: “Viagra Draws Fans With a Trip to the World Series,” Goliath Business, October 1, 2004

Video of Ben Johnson advertisement for Cheetah energy drink: Watch the video at “D’Angelo Television Commercials

Provigil spotted in Britney Spears’ purse: “Britney Spears Carries Prescription for Anti-Sleep Medicine in Her Purse,” Hollywood Backwash, October 26, 2007

FDA okays glaucoma medicine Latisse as cosmetic drug for eyelashes: “Video: Allergan Announces US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval of Latisse(TM) — First and Only Treatment Approved by theFDA for Hypotrichosis of Eyelashes,” PRNewswire-FirstCall via COMTEX News Network, Dec 26, 2008

USOC launches “Don’t Be an Asterisk” campaign: “‘Don’t Be an Asterisk’ Anti-Steroids Public Awareness Campaign Awarded Ad Council’s 2008 Silver Bell Award for Creative Excellence,” USOC, December 1, 2008


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